The inhabitants of the commune are known as Avosniens or Avosniennes.
Avosnes is located some 25 km west of Dijon and 10 km north-west of Sombernon. Access to the commune is by the D9 road which comes from Villy-en-Auxois in the north and passes down the eastern side of the commune south to Saint-Mesmin. Access to the village is by the D119F which goes west from the D9 in the commune passing through the village and continuing west to join the D119 north of Saffres. Apart from the village there is the hamlet of Barain in the north-west of the commune. There are large forests in the north of the commune with scattered forests elsewhere and the rest of the commune is farmland.
The Ozerain river flows from the south through the eastern side of the commune as it flows north to join the Brenne just south of Venarey-les-Laumes. The Ruisseau de Revillon rises in the centre of the commune and flows north to join the Ozerain at Chevannay.