Caerphilly County Borough straddles the boundary of the historic counties of Glamorgan and Monmouthshire in South Wales. The 46 scheduled monuments include burial cairns from the Bronze Age, an Iron Age hillfort, and Roman camps. The medieval sites include two castles and a further four mottes as well as dwellings, crosses and churches. Finally the post-medieval sites include the blast furnaces and ironworks of the industrial period.
Scheduled monuments have statutory protection. The compilation of the list is undertaken by Cadw Welsh Historic Monuments, which is an executive agency of the National Assembly of Wales. The list of scheduled monuments below is supplied by Cadw with additional material from RCAHMW and Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust.