Volodymyr Vynnychenko

Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko (Ukrainian: Володимир Кирилович Винниченко, July 28 [O.S. July 16] 1880 – March 6, 1951) was a Ukrainianstatesman, political activist, writer, playwright, artist, who served as the first Prime Minister of Ukraine.[1][2]

Ukrainian politician; Prime Minister of Ukraine (1918-1919)

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In this Eastern Slavic naming convention, the patronymic is Kyrylovych and the family name is Vynnychenko.
Volodymyr Vynnychenko
Володимир Винниченко
1st Chairman of the Directory
In office
December 19, 1918  February 10, 1919
Preceded by Pavlo Skoropadsky(as Hetman of Ukraine)
Succeeded by Symon Petliura
1st Prime Minister of Ukraine
1st Prime Minister of Ukrainian People’s Republic
In office
June 28, 1917[1]  January 30, 1918
President Mykhailo Hrushevsky
(speaker of Central Rada)
Preceded by position created
Succeeded by Vsevolod Holubovych
Secretary of Internal Affairs
In office
June 28, 1917  January 30, 1918
Prime Minister Himself
Preceded by position created
Succeeded by Pavlo Khrystiuk
Personal details
Born (1880-07-28)July 28, 1880
Yelisavetgrad, Russian Empire
Died March 6, 1951(1951-03-06) (aged 70)
Mougins, France
Nationality Ukrainian
Political party Foreign Group of Ukrainian Communists (1919)
Other political
affiliations
Ukrainian Social Democratic Labour Party (1905–1919)
Revolutionary Ukrainian Party (?-1905)
Spouse(s) Rosalia Yakovna Vynnychenko (Lifshits)
Alma mater Kiev University
Signature

As a writer, Vynnychenko is recognized in Ukrainian literature as a leading modernist writer in prerevolutionary Ukraine, who wrote short stories, novels, and plays, but in Soviet Ukraine his works were forbidden, like that of many other Ukrainian writers, from the 1930s until the mid-1980s. Prior to his entry onto the stage of Ukrainian politics, he was a long-time political activist, who lived abroad in Western Europe from 1906 to 1914. His works reflect his immersion in the Ukrainian revolutionary milieu, among impoverished and working-class people, and among émigrés from the Russian Empire living in Western Europe.

Vynnychenko in the 1910s

. . . Volodymyr Vynnychenko . . .

Vynnychenko was born in a village, Vesely Kut (today – Hryhorivka, Novoukrainka Raion), in the Kherson Governorate of the Russian Empire, in a family of peasants.[3] His father Kyrylo Vasyliovych Vynnychenko earlier in his life was a peasant-serf who moved from a village to the city of Yelisavetgrad, where he married a widow, Yevdokia Pavlenko (nee: Linnyk). From her previous marriage Yevdokia had three children: Andriy, Maria, and Vasyl, while from the marriage with Kyrylo only one son, Volodymyr. Upon graduating from a local public school the Vynnychenko family managed to enroll Volodymyr at the Yelyzavetgrad Male Gymnasium[3] (today the building of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine). In later grades of the gymnasium he took part in a revolutionary organization and wrote a revolutionary poem for which he was incarcerated for a week and excluded from school. That did not stop him from continuing his studies as he was getting prepared for his test to obtain the high school diploma (Matura). He successfully took the test in the Zlatopil gymnasium from which obtained his attestation of maturity.

In 1900[citation needed] Vynnychenko joined the Revolutionary Ukrainian Party (RUP)[4] and enrolled in the law department[4] at Kiev University, but in 1902[4] or 1903[3] he was expelled for participation in revolutionary activities.[4] As a member of the RUP[3] he provided political agitation and propaganda among the Kievan workers and peasants from Poltava[3] and was jailed for several months in Lukyanivska Prison.[3] He managed to escape from his incarceration.[3] In 1902 Vynnychenko published in “Kievskaya starina” his first novel “Beauty and strength”, after which he became known as a writer.[3] Afterward, due to a new arrest he was forcibly drafted into a punitive battalion in the Russian Imperial army[3] where he began to agitate soldiers with revolutionary propaganda.[citation needed] Tipped off[by whom?] that his arrest was imminent,[citation needed] Vynnychenko illegally[3] fled to eastern Galicia,[citation needed]Austria-Hungary. When trying to return to Russian Ukraine with revolutionary literature, Vynnychenko was arrested and jailed[3] in Kiev[citation needed] for two years[citation needed] with a threat to spend the rest of his life in katorga.[3] After his release in 1905,[citation needed] he passed his exams for a law degree in Kiev University.[citation needed]

In 1906 Vynnychenko was arrested for a third time, again for his political activities, and jailed for a year; before his scheduled trial, however, the wealthy patron of Ukrainian literature and culture, Yevhen Chykalenko, paid his bail, and Vynnychenko fled Ukraine again, effectively becoming an émigré writer abroad from 1907 to 1914, living in Lemberg (Lviv), Vienna, Geneva, Paris, Florence, Berlin. In 1911 Vynnychenko married Rosalia Lifshitz, a French Jewish doctor. From 1914 to 1917 Vynnychenko lived illegally near Moscow throughout much of World War I[4] and returned to Kiev in 1917 to assume a leading role in Ukrainian politics.

. . . Volodymyr Vynnychenko . . .

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. . . Volodymyr Vynnychenko . . .