This article includes information on terrorist acts and groups in or against the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918–45) and Federal Yugoslavia (1945–92). Many of the terrorist acts were carried out outside Yugoslavia against Yugoslav subjects.
The post-war period until circa 1985 was marked by frequent terrorist attacks on Yugoslav institutions organized by extremist emigrant organizations. In that period, 20 Yugoslav ambassadors and officials were killed abroad. 22 instances of terrorist groups entering Yugoslavia were recorded, 87 mine and bomb explosions, and 13 cases of arson (including also abroad, mainly in embassies and diaspora clubs). Also, 62 cases of armed and physical attacks on Yugoslav institutions and citizens in which there were no casualties were recorded. Four plane hijackings by Yugoslav emigrants. Perpetrators were predominantly Croat fascists (Ustashe). According to Yugoslav government data, between 1945 and September 1985 there were 657 anti-Yugoslav terrorist acts abroad carried out by ‘enemy’ emigre, in which 82 Yugoslavs (and three foreigners) were killed, and 186 Yugoslavs (and two foreigners) were wounded. In Yugoslavia, more than 40 terrorist acts were carried out, and 60 attempted, in which 30 were killed and 73 wounded. Notably, in Australia, where two Croat extremist organizations (HRB and HOP) were active, 33 anti-Yugoslav acts were carried out, while three were carried out in Yugoslavia.
Ustashe terrorism continued over the years after Ante Pavelić‘s death. The Croatian Liberation Movement (HOP) conducted several assassinations and attacks on Yugoslav diplomacy and JAT representations in Australia. Between 1962 and 1982, Croatian nationalists carried out 128 terror attacks against Yugoslav civilian and military targets. Croat fascist and HSO member Miljenko Hrkać carried out the bombing of a Belgrade cinema in September 1968, leaving one dead and 85 wounded. In 1969, two Yugoslav diplomats in Western Germany were shot and wounded by Ustashe assassins. In 1970, Yugoslav secretary Vladimir Rolović handed over information on Ustashe and their involvement in terrorist actions to the Australian government (which had tolerated and even trained the Ustashe). The following year, two Ustashe youngsters murdered Rolović while he was the ambassador to Sweden. In January 1972, a JAT plane was bombed by Ustashe agents. The crackdown on the Croatian leadership led to heightened anti-Yugoslav activity by Croat emigrant groups. On 29 March 1972 a Yugoslav tourist office was bombed in Stockholm. The last members of the Bugojno group were captured, tried and sentenced on 21 December 1972.