Teratoma

A teratoma is a tumor made up of several different types of tissue, such as hair, muscle, teeth, or bone.[4] Teratomata typically form in the ovary, testicle, or coccyx.[4]

Tumor made up of several different types of tissue, such as hair, muscle, teeth, or bone
Medical condition
Teratoma
A small (4 cm) dermoid cyst of an ovary, discovered during Cesarean section
Specialty Gynecology, oncology
Symptoms Minimal, painless lump[1][2]
Complications Ovarian torsion, testicular torsion, hydrops fetalis[1][2][3]
Types Mature, immature[4]
Causes Unknown[2]
Diagnostic method Tissue biopsy[2]
Differential diagnosis Lipoma, dermoid, myelomeningocele[5]
Treatment Surgery, chemotherapy[5][6]
Frequency 1 in 30,000 newborns (coccyx)[7]

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Symptoms may be minimal if the tumor is small.[2] A testicular teratoma may present as a painless lump.[1] Complications may include ovarian torsion, testicular torsion, or hydrops fetalis.[1][2][3]

They are a type of germ cell tumor (a tumor that begins in the cells that give rise to sperm or eggs).[4][8] They are divided into two types: mature and immature.[4] Mature teratomas include dermoid cysts and are generally benign.[8] Immature teratomas may be cancerous.[4][9] Most ovarian teratomas are mature.[10] In adults, testicular teratomas are generally cancerous.[11] Definitive diagnosis is based on a tissue biopsy.[2]

Treatment of coccyx, testicular, and ovarian teratomas is generally by surgery.[5][6][12] Testicular and immature ovarian teratomas are also frequently treated with chemotherapy.[6][10]

Teratomas occur in the coccyx in about one in 30,000 newborns, making them one of the most common tumors in this age group.[5][7] Females are affected more often than males.[5] Ovarian teratomas represent about a quarter of ovarian tumors and are typically noticed during middle age.[10] Testicular teratomas represent almost half of testicular cancers.[13] They can occur in both children and adults.[14] The term comes from the Greek word for “monster”[15] plus the “-oma” suffix used for tumors.

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